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effects of increasing depth on open pit production

Equipment size effects on open pit mining performance

Material handling in open pit mining accounts for about 50% of production costs. The selection and deployment of efficient, safe, and economic loading and haulage systems is

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Open-pit mining Wikipedia

Open-pit mining, also known as open-cast or open cut mining, is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open-air pit, sometimes known as a borrow.. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunnelling into the earth, such as long wall mining.Open-pit mines are used when deposits of

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Paper: Controlling the effects of stress and seismicity in

Abstract: The Ernest Henry mine (EHM) in Queensland, Australia is developed to a depth of just over 1 km, and current active production cave levels have reached a depth of 730 m. Caving started just below the pit floor at a depth of 535 m, and is progressing deeper. The impact of stress and seismicity with increasing depth requires ongoing review and re-assessment of

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(PDF) Optimized depth of transition from Open Pit to

The article formulates the problem on optimization of depth for transition from open pit to underground coal mining, considering lag factor. The main

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Opencast Mining an overview ScienceDirect Topics

The open pit exposes the orebody from the surface by separate removal of ore and associated waste rocks. It is the most economic option for a deposit up to that depth where the economic ratio of ore and waste can be sustained. There are many advantages to the open pit mining method, namely: 1.

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Long term production planning of open pit mines by ant

Feb 01, 2015· The long-term open-pit mine production planning problem can be defined as specifying the sequence in which the blocks should be removed from the mine as a certain material type, in order to maximize the total discounted profit from the mine subject to a variety of economical and physical constraints.

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Top 10 deep open-pit mines mining-technology

Aitik open pit mine located about 60km north of the Arctic Circle in Northern Sweden is currently 430m deep. The open pit is expected to reach a final depth of 600m. Aitik is the largest copper mine in Sweden. The mine also produces silver and gold. The Aitik mine was discovered in 1930. The open pit mine is owned and operated by Boliden.

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Planning of open pit mines on a risk basis

follows: The LOM pit limits are such that no ore is mined which will result in the final product having a production cost greater than the cut-off value. The specification of this cut-off cost is related to an acceptable risk. The first objective of the life-of-mine plan is to determine the maximum inventory of open-pit mineable reserves. The

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17* Open Pit Optimization Strategies for Improving

ABSTRACT: The open pit design and scheduling problem is a large-scale optimization problem that has attracted considerable attention during the last 40 years The development of the "know-how" to improve economics of open pit mining projects through the use of mathematical optimization techniques goes back to early 1960's.

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Long term production planning of open pit mines by ant

Feb 01, 2015· The long-term open-pit mine production planning problem can be defined as specifying the sequence in which the blocks should be removed from the mine as a certain material type, in order to maximize the total discounted profit from the mine subject to a

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Surface mining planning and design of open pit mining

Jan 09, 2016· The Depth Effect • Note that as a pit goes deeper the stripping ratio increases until it reaches an economic limit. • Rule 1 : as slope decreases S.R. increases • Rule 2 : as depth increases S.R. increases 47. vi) Water Damage Pit most keep dry

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A model for determining optimal transition depth over from

depth and total profit in the combined method of OP and Ug for a hypothetical deposit. 1 Introduction Selection of the mining method is one of the most important decisions in the design stage of mine. Open Pit (OP), underground (Ug) methods or both of them are

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17* Open Pit Optimization Strategies for Improving

ABSTRACT: The open pit design and scheduling problem is a large-scale optimization problem that has attracted considerable attention during the last 40 years The development of the "know-how" to improve economics of open pit mining projects through the use of mathematical optimization techniques goes back to early 1960's.

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SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR OPEN PITS 1

Analyses of a deep wall in an open pit mine in the Peruvian Andes are used to compare limit equilibrium methods (SLIDE) with distinct element methods (UDEC) when the stability is controlled by rock mass strength. The pit wall has an overall slope angle of 37º and a

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Environmental Risks of Mining

Open pit mining. Open pit mining, where material is excavated from an open pit, is one of the most common forms of mining for strategic minerals. This type of mining is particularly damaging to the environment because strategic minerals are often only available in small concentrations, which increases the amount of ore needed to be mined.

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Planning of open pit mines on a risk basis

follows: The LOM pit limits are such that no ore is mined which will result in the final product having a production cost greater than the cut-off value. The specification of this cut-off cost is related to an acceptable risk. The first objective of the life-of-mine plan is to determine the maximum inventory of open-pit mineable reserves. The

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EFFECTS OF BLAST-HOLE DEVIATION ON DRILLING AND

Blast-hole depth measurement Blast-hole depth was measured by lowering a metal ball tied to a string down the blast hole. The ball was let to reach the bottom of the hole and the string collar position was marked. The ball would then be taken out and the length of the string measured to the collar position.

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A stochastic optimization formulation for the transition

Jul 11, 2017· As open pit mining of a mineral deposit deepens, the cost of extraction may increase up to a threshold where transitioning to mining through underground methods is more profitable. This paper provides an approach to determine an optimal depth at which a mine should transition from open pit to underground mining, based on managing technical risk.

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Chapter 2: The Environmental Effects of Strip Mining The

Open Pit Mining. Open pit mining is similar to area mining. The technique is common in the western United States (and other parts of the world) where very thick — 50 to 100 foot — coal seams exist. Open pit mines are usually large operations. Production levels may exceed 10 million tons of coal per year.. The thick coal seams found at these large mines ensure that the amount of land

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Studies on the Effect of Burden on Blast Damage and the

Aug 09, 2010· The conventional practice in deep open pit mines is to use so-called trim blasts adjacent to pit walls. To provide burden relief these trim blasts have fewer rows than full production blasts and are fired to a cleared free-face: hence they are termed ‘unchoked.’

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Design of openpit mining SlideShare

Mar 13, 2012· E Contd.E. Pit design Overall slope of a pit depends on several factors of the pit slope: a) Geological disturbances like faults etc. b) Hydrological condition of strata c) Orientation of slip planes d) Nature of strata i.e. hardness, material consolidation etc. e) Depth of workings f) Design of haul roads & ramps in the highwall g

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